Battle of the Coral Sea order of battle

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

IJ Combined Fleet and US Pacific Fleet Commanders
Adm. Isoroku Yamamoto (HQ at Tokyo)
Adm. Chester W. Nimitz (HQ at Pearl Harbor)

The Battle of the Coral Sea, a major engagement of the Pacific Theatre of World War II, was fought 4–8 May 1942 in the waters east of New Guinea and south of the Bismarck Islands between elements of the Imperial Japanese Navy and Allied naval and air forces from the United States (U.S.) and Australia.

To extend their empire in the Pacific to the conquest of Australia, the Japanese first had to capture the naval and air center of Port Moresby on the southeast coast of New Guinea. In order to extend the reach of their air searches for Allied naval forces, they resolved to simultaneously establish a seaplane base at Tulagi in the lower Solomon Islands. The U.S. learned of the Japanese plan, known as Operation Mo, through signals intelligence and sent two United States Navy carrier task forces and a joint Australian-American cruiser force to oppose the Japanese offensive.

The result was a strategic defeat for the Japanese, since their principal goal of landing troops at Port Moresby was thwarted, but a tactical defeat for the Allies, who suffered more significant ship losses.

Because the Japanese assumed the tactical initiative, their forces are listed first.

Forces deployed[edit]

Japanese Forces[edit]

Operation and carrier commanders
Vice Adm. Shigeyoshi Inoue
Vice Adm. Takeo Takagi

Task Force MO
Vice Admiral Shigeyoshi Inoue, Commander, Fourth Fleet in light cruiser Kashima anchored at Rabaul[1]

Carrier Striking Force[edit]

Fleet carrier Shōkaku
Early-war Japanese naval aircraft
Mitsubishi A6N "Zeke" fighter
Aichi D3A "Val" dive bomber
Nakajima B5N "Kate" torpedo bomber

Vice Admiral Takeo Takagi in heavy cruise Myōkō[2]

Carrier Division 5 (Rear Adm. Chūichi Hara, Officer in Tactical Command in Zuikaku)[1]
2 fleet carriers
Shōkaku (Capt. Takaji Jōjima)[3]
Air Group (Lt. Cmdr. Kakuichi Takahashi)[a][4]
21 Mitsubishi A6M "Zeke" fighters (Lt. Takumi Hoashi)[b][5]
20 Aichi D3A Type 99 "Val" dive bombers (Lt. Masao Yamaguchi)[5]
19 Nakajima B5N Type 97 "Kate" torpedo bombers (Lt. Tatsuo Ichihara)[4]
Zuikaku (Capt. Ichihei Yokogawa)[6]
Air Group (Lt. Cmdr. Shigekazu Shimazaki)[c][4]
25 Mitsubishi A6M "Zeke" fighters (Lt. Kiyokuma Okajima)[d][4]
22 Aichi D3A "Val" dive bombers (Lt. Tamotsu Ema)[4]
20 Nakajima B5N "Kate" torpedo bombers (Lt. Yoshiaki Tsubota)[4]
Cruiser Division 5 (Vice Adm. Takagi in Myōkō)
2 heavy cruisers
Both Myoko-class: Myōkō, Haguro[e][7]
Destroyer Division 5
2 destroyers
Both Fubuki-class: Ushio, Akebono[f][8]
Destroyer Division 7
4 destroyers
All Hatsuharu / Shiratsuyu-class: Ariake, Yūgure, Shiratsuyu, Shigure[g][9]
1 oiler: Tōhō Maru[2]

Invasion Forces[edit]

Rear Adm. Aritomo Gotō
Heavy cruiser Aoba, Rear Adm. Goto's flagship
Minelayer Okinoshima, Rear Adm. Shima's flagship
Light carrier Shōhō under attack by US aircraft
Destroyer Sazanami
I-class submarine

Rear Admiral Aritomo Gotō in heavy cruiser Aoba

Tulagi Invasion Group
Rear Admiral Kiyohide Shima in minelayer Okinoshima[10]
1 transport: Azumasan Maru[10]
Embarking 400 troops from the 3rd Kure Special Naval Landing Force (SNLF) plus a construction detachment from the 7th Establishment Squad.[11]
2 minelayers: Okinoshima,[h][12] Kōei Maru
2 destroyers: Kikuzuki (sunk by air attack 5 May), Yūzuki[i][13]
5 minesweepers: Wa #1 (sunk), Wa #2 (sunk), Hagoromo Maru, Noshiro Maru #2, Tama Maru (sunk)[j][14]
2 subchasers: Toshi Maru #3, Tama Maru #8[k][15]
Support Group/Close Cover Force
Rear Admiral Kuninori Marumo in light cruiser Tenryū[16]
Cruiser Division 18 (Rear Adm. Marumo)
2 light cruisers
Both Tenryū-class: Tenryū, Tatsuta[17]
2 seaplane tenders[l][18]
Kamikawa Maru[19]
Air group: 12 aircraft[20]
Kiyokawa Maru
Air group (attached)
3 gunboats: Keijo Maru, Seikai Maru, Nikkai Maru[m][10]
Covering Group/Main Body Support Force
Rear Admiral Gotō in heavy cruiser Aoba[n][21]
Cruiser Division 6 (Rear Adm. Gotō)
4 heavy cruisers: Aoba, Kako, Kinugasa, Furutaka[o][22]
1 light carrier Shōhō (sunk by air attack 7 May)[21]
Air Group (Lt. Kenjirō Nōtomi)[4]
8 Mitsubishi A6M Zero and 4 Mitsubishi A5M "Claude" fighters (Lt. Nōtomi)[4]
6 Nakajima B5N Type 97 "Kate" torpedo bombers (Lt. Michitarō Nakamoto)[4]
1 destroyer: Sazanami[23]
Port Moresby Invasion Group
Rear Admiral Sadamichi Kajioka in light cruiser Yūbari[p][24]
Transport Unit (Rear Adm. Kōsō Abe)
5 Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) transports: Mogamigawa Maru, Chōwa Maru, Goyō Maru,[q][25][r][26] Akiba Maru, Shōka Maru.[27]
Embarking approximately 500 troops from the 3rd Kure SNLF plus construction specialists from the 10th Establishment Squad[28]
6 Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) transports: Asakasan Maru, China Maru, Mito Maru, Matsue Maru,[29] Taifuku Maru, Hibi Maru[27]
Embarking South Seas Detachment of approximately 5,000 troops[s][30]
5 minesweepers: W-20 (Wa #20), Hagoromo Maru, Noshiro Maru #2, Fumi Maru #2, Seki Maru #3.[t][31]
1 minelayer: Tsugaru (Capt. Inagaki Yoshiaki)[u][32]
1 salvage tugboat: Woshima[33]
2 oilers: Hoyo Maru, Irō[v] [34]
1 light cruiser: Yūbari (Capt. Masami Ban)[w][35]
6 destroyers: Oite, Asanagi, Uzuki, Mutsuki, Mochizuki, Yayoi[x][36]
1 or 2 unidentified patrol boats[37]

Submarine Force[edit]

Captain Noboru Ishizaki

Patrol/Scouting Group: I-21, I-22, I-24, I-28, I-29[y][38]
Raiding Group: Ro-33, Ro-34[z][39]

Air Forces[edit]

Mitsubishi G4M "Betty" bomber
Kawanishi H6K "Mavis" flying boat
25th Air Flotilla[aa][40]
Rear Admiral Sadayoshi Yamada
4th Air Group (based at Rabaul)
17 Mitsubishi G4M Type 1 "Betty" land attack bombers[41]
Tainan Air Group (based at Lae and Rabaul)
18 Mitsubishi A6M Zero "Zeke"
  6 Mitsubishi A5M "Claude" fighters (Capt. Masahisa Saitō)[42]
Yokohama Air Group (based at Rabaul, Shortland Islands, and Tulagi)
12 Kawanishi H6K "Mavis" reconnaissance seaplanes
  9 Nakajima A6M2-N "Rufe" seaplane fighters[ab][43]
Genzan Air Group (based at Rabaul)
25 Mitsubishi G3M Type 96 "Nell" land attack bombers[ac][44]

Allied Forces[edit]

Task force and carrier group commanders
Rear Adm. Frank Jack Fletcher
Rear Adm. Aubrey W. Fitch

Task Force 17[edit]

TF 17 carriers
Yorktown (sunk at Midway in June)
Lexington (the 8" guns were removed shortly before the battle)
Early-war US naval aircraft
Grumman F4F Wildcat fighter
Douglas SBD Dauntless dive bomber
Douglas TBD Devastator torpedo bomber
US combat vessels
Heavy cruiser Portland at Pearl Harbor
Farragut-class destroyer Aylwin outfitted in dazzle camouflage

Rear Admiral Frank Jack Fletcher in Yorktown[45]

Carrier Air Group (TG 17.5)
Rear Admiral Aubrey W. Fitch, Officer in Tactical Command (OTC)[ad][45]
2 fleet carriers
Yorktown (Capt. Elliott Buckmaster)[46]
Air Group (Lt. Cmdr. Oscar Pederson)[47]
VF-42: 17 F4F Wildcat fighters (Lt. Cmdr. Charles R. Fenton)[47]
VB-5: 18 SBD Dauntless dive bombers (Lt. Wallace C. Short)[47]
VS-5: 17 SBD Dauntless scout bombers (Lt. Cmdr. William O. Burch, Jr.)[47]
VT-5: 13 TBD Devastator torpedo bombers (Lt. Cmdr. Joe Taylor)[47]
Lexington (Capt. Frederick C. Sherman) (scuttled 8 May following severe damage from air attack)[46]
Air Group (Cmdr. William B. Ault)[ae][47]
VF-2: 21 F4F Wildcat fighters (Lt. Cmdr. Paul H. Ramsey)[47]
VB-2: 18 SBD Dauntless dive bombers (Lt. Cmdr. Weldon L. Hamilton)[47]
VS-2: 17 SBD Dauntless scout bombers (Lt. Cmdr. Robert E. Dixon)[47]
VT-2: 12 TBD Devastator torpedo bombers (Lt. Cmdr. James H. Brett, Jr.)[47]
4 destroyers
All Sims-class (4 × 5-in. main battery)[af]
Morris (Cmdr. Harry B. Jarrett)
Anderson (Lt. Cmdr. John K. B. Ginder)
Hammann (Lt. Cmdr. Arnold E. True)
Russell (Lt. Cmdr. Glenn R. Hartwig)[46]
Attack Group (TG 17.2)
Rear Admiral Thomas C. Kinkaid[45]
5 heavy cruisers
3 Astoria-class (9 × 8-in. main battery)
New Orleans (Capt. Howard H. Good)
Astoria (Capt. Francis W. Scanland)
Minneapolis (Capt. Frank J. Lowry)[ag]
1 Portland-class (9 × 8-in. main battery)
Portland (Capt. Benjamin Perlman)
1 Northampton-class (9 × 8-in. main battery)
Chester (Capt. Thomas M. Shock)
Screen (Capt. Alexander R. Early)
5 destroyers
1 Porter-class (8 × 5-in. main battery)
Phelps (Lt. Cmdr. Edward L. Beck)
4 Farragut-class (5 × 5-in. main battery)
Farragut (Cmdr. George P. Hunter)
Dewey (Lt. Cmdr. Charles F. Chillingworth, Jr.)
Monaghan (Lt. Cmdr. William P. Burfor
Aylwin (Lt. Cmdr. Robert H. Rogers)[ah][49]
Rear Adm. John Gregory Crace, RAN
Heavy cruiser HMAS Australia
Oiler Neosho
Support Group (TG 17.3)[ai]
Rear Admiral John Gregory Crace, RAN[45]
2 heavy cruisers
1 Northampton-class (9 × 8-in. main battery): Chicago (Capt. Howard D. Bode)[aj]
1 County-class (8 × 8-in. main battery): Australia (Capt. H. B. Farncomb, RAN)
1 light cruiser
1 Leander-class (8 × 6-in. main battery): Hobart (Capt. H. L. Howden, RAN)[49]
2 destroyers[ak][49]
1 Mahan-class (5 × 5-in.main battery): Perkins (Lt. Cmdr. Walter C. Ford)
1 Sims-class (4 × 5-in. main battery): Walke (Lt. Cmdr. Thomas E. Fraser)
Fueling Group (TG 17.6)
Captain John S. Phillips[45]
2 oilers
Neosho (sunk by air attack 7 May), Tippecanoe[50]
2 destroyers
Sims (sunk by air attack 7 May) (Lt. Cmdr. Willford M. Hyman†), Worden[50]
Search Group (TG 17.9)
Commander George H. DeBaun[45]
1 seaplane tender
Patrol Squadron 71 (VP-71): 6 PBY-5 Catalinas
Patrol Squadron 72 (VP-72): 6 PBY-5 Catalinas

South West Pacific Area[edit]

Submarine S-41
Curtiss P-40 "Tomahawks"
Boeing B-17 "Flying Fortress"
North American B-25 "Mitchell"

General Douglas MacArthur[52]

Allied Naval Forces
Vice Admiral Herbert F. Leary[am][52]
Task Group 42.1 (Capt. Ralph Waldo Christie in submarine tender USS Griffin at Brisbane)[an][53]
Subdiv 53 (Lt. Cmdr. Elmer E. Yeomans): S-42, S-43, S-44, S-45, S-46, S-47
Subdiv 201 (Cmdr. Ralston B. Van Zant): S-37, S-38, S-39, S-40, S-41
Task Force 44 – temporarily assigned to Task Force 17, see Task Group 17.3 above
Allied Air Forces
Lieutenant General George Brett[54]
United States Army Air Forces
8th Pursuit Group: 26 P-39 Airacobra fighters at Archerfield, Brisbane[55]
35th Fighter Squadron at Port Moresby[56]
36th Fighter Squadron at Port Moresby[56]
49th Pursuit Group: 90 P-40 Tomahawk fighters at Darwin[57]
7th Fighter Squadron at Darwin[56]
8th Fighter Squadron at Darwin[56]
9th Fighter Squadron at Darwin[56]
3rd Light Bombardment Group[56]
8th Light Bombardment Squadron: A-24 Banshee dive bombers at Port Moresby[58]
13th Light Bombardment Squadron: B-25 Mitchell bombers[56]
90th Light Bombardment Squadron: B-25 Mitchell bombers[56]
19th Bombardment Group: 17 Boeing B-17 bombers at Townsville (Lt. Col. Connally (first name unknown))[59]
30th Bombardment Squadron[60]
40th Reconnaissance Squadron[61]
93rd Bombardment Squadron[62]
435th Bombardment Squadron[63]
22nd Bombardment Group: 48 Martin B-26 Marauders[64]
Royal Australian Air Force[65]
No. 11 Squadron: Consolidated PBY Catalinas[65]
No. 20 Squadron: PBY Catalinas[65]
No. 24 Squadron: 3 CAC Wirraways at Townsville
No. 32 Squadron: Lockheed Hudsons at Port Moresby[66]
No. 75 Squadron: 3 Curtiss P-40s at Port Moresby[65]

Port Moresby garrison

Major General B. M. Morris
Approximately 5,000 troops[67]
30th Infantry Brigade[68]
39th Infantry Battalion[ao][69]
49th Infantry Battalion[70]
53rd Infantry Battalion[71]
13th Field Regiment[72]
23rd Heavy Anti-Aircraft Battery[ap][72]
Detachment, 1st Independent Company[68]
30th Infantry Brigade Signal Section[68]
30th Infantry Brigade HQ Defence Platoon[68]
Moresby Fixed Defences[68]
Moresby Fixed Defences Fortress Engineers[68]
Moresby Fixed Defences Anti-Aircraft Artillery (six 3-inch guns)[68]
1st Army Troops Company[68]
7th Field Company[68]
1st Section, 1st Mechanical Equipment Company[68]
8th Military District Survey Section[68]
8th Military District Bomb Disposal Section[68]
8th Military District Signals[68]
8th Military District Defence and Employment Company[68]
New Guinea Volunteer Rifles[73]
Papuan Infantry Battalion, [aq][72]
8th Military District Section Intelligence Corps[68]
15th Supply Personnel Company[68]
8th Military District Bulk Issue Petrol and Oil Depot[68]
A Section, 8th Military District Mechanical Transport Company[68]
Base Hospital[68]
3rd Field Ambulance[68]
113th Convalescent Depot[68]
8th Military District Dental Centre[68]
45th Dental Unit[68]
253rd Dental Unit[68]
256th Dental Unit[68]
274th Dental Unit[68]
301st Dental Unit[68]
421st Dental Unit[68]
15th Optical Unit[68]
8th Military District Depot of Medical Stores[68]
16th Field Hygiene Section[68]
8th Military District Ordnance Depot[68]
19th Ordnance Ammunition Section[68]
109th Infantry Brigade Group Field Workshop[68]
109th Infantry Brigade Group Ordnance Field Park[68]
30th Infantry Brigade Provost Platoon[68]
8th Military District Accounts Office[68]
8th Military District Postal Unit[68]
8th Military District Records Office[68]
8th Military District Stationery Depot[68]
8th Military District Printing Section[68]
8th Military District Graves Registration and Inquiries Unit[68]
8th Military District Laundry and Decontamination Unit[68]
8th Military District Army Field Bakery[68]
8th Military District Base Depot[68]
8th Military District Marine Section[68]
8th Military District Canteen Services[68]
8th Military District Training Centre[68]
Australian New Guinea Administrative Unit[68]


  1. ^ Flew in an Aichi D3A dive bomber.
  2. ^ Three aircraft were reserved for delivery to the Tainan Air Group.
  3. ^ Shimazaki flew in a Nakajima B5N torpedo bomber.
  4. ^ Five of the fighters were reserved for delivery to the Tainan Air Group.
  5. ^ From Cruiser Division 5.
  6. ^ From Destroyer Squadron 7.
  7. ^ From Destroyer Squadron 27.
  8. ^ Commanded by Captain Nomi Minoru and was flagship of Mine Division 19; sunk by US submarine S-42 10 May 1942 during Operation RY.
  9. ^ From Destroyer Squadron 6 (Bullard, p. 56 says Destroyer Squadron 23).
  10. ^ The latter three ships were from the 14th Minesweeper Flotilla.
  11. ^ From the 56th Submarine Chaser Squadron.
  12. ^ Kiyokawa Maru was under repair at Yokohama, Japan but its airgroup was at Rabaul and assisted Kamikawa Maru'ss airgroup in the invasion of Tulagi. When Kamikawa Maru departed Santa Isabel on 4 May to support the Port Moresby invasion from Deboyne, the Kiyokawa Maru aircraft remained at Santa Isabel and Tulgai and/or were attached to Kamikawa's airgroup for the Deboyne deployment.
  13. ^ Nikkai Maru and oiler Iro helped establish a Japanese port and seaplane base in the Shortland Islands on 28 April 1942 prior to participating in Mo.
  14. ^ Gotō was in tactical command of the Mo invasion forces.
  15. ^ On 8 May Furutaka and Kinugasa were attached to Carrier Division 5 and helped escort Zuikaku back to Truk. Aoba and Kako helped cover the Port Moresby invasion convoy's return to Rabaul.
  16. ^ Also commander of Destroyer Squadron 6.
  17. ^ Goyo Maru was later converted into an oiler.
  18. ^ Apparently, the Azumasan Maru was supposed to join from the Tulagi Invasion Group but did not, perhaps as a result of battle damage
  19. ^ The South Seas Detachment was primarily from the 55th Division commanded by Major General Tomitarō Horii and included troops from the 55th Infantry Group, centered on the 144th Infantry Regiment, as well as the 47th Field Anti-Aircraft Battalion and attached medical and water supply support units.
  20. ^ All the minesweepers from Shima's Tulagi Invasion Group were to have joined the Port Moresby Invasion Group. Only Hagoromo Maru and Noshiro Maru #2 survived the Yorktown's airstrikes to do so.
  21. ^ Member of Mine Division 19 with Okinoshima.
  22. ^ Iro and gunboat Nikkai Maru helped establish a Japanese port and seaplane base in the Shortland Islands on 28 April 1942 prior to participating in Mo. Iro and destroyer Uzuki remained at the Shortlands to refuel Gotō's Covering Group after it completed its support mission of the Tulagi invasion.
  23. ^ Flagship of Destroyer Squadron 6.
  24. ^ Oite and Asanagi were from Destroyer Squadron 29, Mutsuki, Mochizuki, and Yayoi from Destroyer Squadron 30, and Uzuki from Destroyer Squadron 23.
  25. ^ From Submarine Squadron 8. I-28 was sunk by the US submarine Tautog on 17 May as I-28 returned to base at Truk.
  26. ^ From the 21st Submarine Group.
  27. ^ Also called the 5th Air Attack Force; aircraft numbers are of 1 May 1942.
  28. ^ Six Kawanishi deployed from Rabaul to the Shortlands on 28 April.
  29. ^ Crave states the Genzan had 27 aircraft.
  30. ^ Both carriers together were designated Task Unit 17.5.1 under Fitch.
  31. ^ Ault flew an SBD not assigned to either of the SBD squadrons.
  32. ^ Task Unit 17.5.4 under Captain Gilbert C. Hoover.
  33. ^ Minneapolis and New Orleans were designated Task Unit 17.2.1 under Kinkaid and the other three cruisers were Task Unit 17.2.2 under Rear Admiral William W. Smith.[48]
  34. ^ Task Unit 17.2.4 under Captain Alexander R. Early
  35. ^ From Task Force 44
  36. ^ Committed suicide after learning he would be held partially responsible for the debacle at the Battle of Savo Island.
  37. ^ Task Unit 17.3.4 under Commander Francis X. McInerney.
  38. ^ Based at Noumea
  39. ^ Reassigned because of difficult relationship with MacArthur.
  40. ^ Only S-38, S-42, S-44, and S-47 were involved in the battle.
  41. ^ Commanded by Lieutenant Colonel H. M. Conran.
  42. ^ Consisted of four 3.7 inch stationary guns and three mobile 3 inch guns.
  43. ^ Commanded by Major W. T. Watson.


  1. ^ a b Lundstrom (2006), p. 138.
  2. ^ a b Willmott, p. 87.
  3. ^ Lundstrom, p. 140; Willmott, p. 87.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Lundstrom (2005), p. 188.
  5. ^ a b Gillison, p. 525; Lundstrom (2005), p. 188.
  6. ^ Lundstrom (2006), p. 140; Willmott, p. 87.
  7. ^ Gill, p. 40; Willmott, p. 87; Bullard, p. 52.
  8. ^ Willmott, p. 87; Bullard, p. 52.
  9. ^ Willmott, p. 87; Bullard, p. 52; Dull, p. 135.
  10. ^ a b c Willmott, p. 84.
  11. ^ Bullard, p. 56; Jersey, pp. 58–60.
  12. ^ Hackett, Okinoshima.
  13. ^ Willmott, p. 84; Dull, p. 136.
  14. ^ Lundstrom (2005), p. 188.Bullard, p. 56; Willmott, p. 84.
  15. ^ Bullard, p. 56; Willmott, p. 84.
  16. ^ Hackett, Tenryu.
  17. ^ Gill, p. 40; Bullard, p. 52; Hackett, Tenryu and Tatsuta.
  18. ^ Hackett, Tenryu and Kiyokawa Maru.
  19. ^ Dull, p. 136.
  20. ^ Hackett, Tenryu; United States Army Center of Military History, p. 135.
  21. ^ a b Willmott, pp. 85–86.
  22. ^ Bullard, p. 52; Willmott, pp. 85–86; Hackett, Furutaka; Gill, p. 40.
  23. ^ Dull, p. 136; Willmott, pp. 85–86.
  24. ^ Hackett, Yubari.
  25. ^ Willmott, p. 86; Bullard, pp. 56–57.
  26. ^ (Bullard, pp. 56–57). Willmott spells Akihasan Maru as Akibasan Maru.
  27. ^ a b Iwashige (2009), p. 78–79
  28. ^ Bullard, pp. 56–57.
  29. ^ Bullard, p. 58, 64; Willmott, p. 86; Dull, p. 135; Hackett, Tsugaru. Asakayama Maru was equipped with extra anti-aircraft guns (Bullard). The IJA commander was on Matsue Maru (Bullard).
  30. ^ Rottman, p. 84.
  31. ^ Bullard, pp. 56–57; Willmott, pp. 85–86; Hackett, Tsugaru. Hackett does not list Seki Maru #3 as part of Abe's force.
  32. ^ Hackett, Tsugaru.
  33. ^ Bullard, pp. 56–57; Willmott, p. 86; Hackett, Tsugaru. Some sources spell this ship's name as Oshima. Her ship's side name is をしま, not おしま おじま.
  34. ^ Hackett, Ojima; Willmott, pp. 84, 86; Hackett, Tsugaru.
  35. ^ Willmott, p. 86; Dull, p. 135; Hackett, Yubari.
  36. ^ Bullard, p. 56; Willmott, p. 86.
  37. ^ Hackett, Ojima.
  38. ^ Willmott, pp. 84–85.
  39. ^ Bullard, p. 57.
  40. ^ Bullard, pp. 47, 61.
  41. ^ Bullard, pp. 47, 53, 61.
  42. ^ Bullard, pp. 47, 53–54, 61.
  43. ^ Lundstrom (2006), p. 138; Bullard, pp. 48, 52, 61.
  44. ^ Bullard, p. 61; Crave, p. 447.
  45. ^ a b c d e f Willmott, p. 190; Lundstrom (2006), p. 519.
  46. ^ a b c ONI, p. 11; Lundstrom (2006), p. 519.
  47. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Lundstrom (2005), p. 190.
  48. ^ Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI), p. 10; Lundstrom (2006), p. 519.
  49. ^ a b c ONI, p. 10; Lundstrom (2006), p. 519.
  50. ^ a b Lundstrom (2006), p. 519.
  51. ^ Dull, p. 136; Hoyt, p. 13; Willmott, p. 190; Lundstrom (2006), p. 519; Morison, p. 20.
  52. ^ a b Willmott, p. 191.
  53. ^ Gill, p. 42; Morison, p. 20; Willmott, p. 191.
  54. ^ Willmott, p. 192.
  55. ^ Willmott, p. 195; Crave, pp. 424–425.
  56. ^ a b c d e f g h Willmott, p. 195.
  57. ^ Willmott, p. 195; Crave, pp. 411, 416.
  58. ^ Willmott, p. 195; Crave, p. 425.
  59. ^ Willmott, p. 195; Crave, p. 416; Salecker, p. 177.
  60. ^ Bowman, p. 85.
  61. ^ Salecker, p. 177.
  62. ^ Bowman, p. 85; Salecker, p. 177.
  63. ^ Crave, pp. 425, 448.
  64. ^ Willmott, p. 195; Crave, pp. 414, 425.
  65. ^ a b c d Willmott, p. 196.
  66. ^ Willmott, p. 196; Gillison, p. 519.
  67. ^ Willmott, p. 143; McCarthy, p. 112.
  68. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ""Order of Battle – Port Moresby Garrison", War Diary, New Guinea Force Headquarters, March–April 1942, AWM52 1/5/51" (PDF). Retrieved 28 November 2009.
  69. ^ McCarthy, p. 44.
  70. ^ McCarthy, pp. 43–44.
  71. ^ Willmott, p. 143.
  72. ^ a b c McCarthy, p. 45.
  73. ^ McCarthy, p. 42, 45.


Printed sources[edit]